Validating a measure of temperament
These four temperament suites have been designated: (1) Curious/Energetic, (2) Cautious/Social Norm Compliant, (3) Analytical/Tough-minded, and (4) Prosocial/Empathetic temperament dimensions.
Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI) studies have suggested that the FTI can measure the influence of these neural systems.
Dopamine has been found to be associated with both Extraversion and Openness to Experience.
Previous studies and evidence presented here suggests that the Curious/Energetic scale of the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI) may include both and use the dopamine system (Brown et al., 2013).
It influences and is influenced by the experience of the individual, one of the outcomes is the adult personality.” Although some theorists argue that there is no hard distinction between the two constructs of personality and temperament (Mc Crae et al., 2000), elements of temperament traditionally include behavioral dispositions from childhood to adulthood, observable in preverbal infants and generalizable to non-human animals (Rothbart et al., 2000; Clark, 2005). doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.20 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Kapura, S., Mizrahia, R., and Lia, M. From dopamine to salience in psychosis-linking biology, pharmacology and phenomenology of psychosis.
Many psychologists have investigated the physiological foundations of temperament (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1985; Cloninger, 1987, 2000; Depue et al., 1994; Gray and Mc Naughton, 2000; Davis et al., 2003; Zuckerman, 2005).
For example, low Neuroticism scores are predictive of less professional fulfillment (Judge et al., 2002).
As temperament is biologically based, we reasoned that constructing a temperament measure directly from data on brain architecture and physiology may elucidate core aspects of human temperament, at a broader level that might reduce crossover found among traits in other models. Neural correlates of altered response inhibition and dysfunctional connectivity at rest in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
In this paper, to further the behavioral validation and characterization of the four proposed temperament dimensions, we measured correlations with five variables: (1) gender; (2) level of education; (3) religious preference; (4) political orientation; (5) the degree to which an individual regards sex as essential to a successful relationship.
Subjects were 39,913 anonymous members of a US Internet dating site and 70,000 members in six other countries. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.20 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Knutson, B., Wolkowitz, O.
In fact, Big Five research has also identified a higher-order factor structure, or metatraits (see De Young and Gray, 2009) designated as stability and plasticity.
Metatraits may be particularly useful a broad physiological factor structure may also be especially useful to understand personality and temperament. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.530 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Kanai, R., Feilden, T., Firth, C., and Rees, G. Political orientations are correlated with brain structure in young adults. Other models of personality, like the six-factor HEXACO (i.e., Honesty–Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience) framework (Ashton and Lee, 2007) may have more value in organizational settings, due to its inclusion of a sixth facet, Honesty–Humility, a factor demonstrated to predict integrity and ethical decision-making beyond other measures of the traditional Big Five (Lee et al., 2008). doi: 10.1016/20 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Haas, B. Agreeableness and brain activity during emotion attribution decisions.